Latin American cultural sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List
© Iphan / SRBM. Author: Liberal Oscar
Brazil, Sítio Roberto Burle Marx
Located west of Rio de Janeiro, the site embodies a successful project developed over more than 40 years by landscape architect and artist Roberto Burle Marx (1909-1994) to create a “living work of art” and “landscape laboratory” using native plants and drawing inspiration from of modernist ideas. Begun in 1949, the garden exhibits key features that defined Burle Marx Landscape Gardens and influenced the development of modern gardens internationally. The garden is characterized by sinuous forms, exuberant mass planting, architectural plant arrangements, dramatic color contrasts, the use of tropical plants and the incorporation of elements of traditional popular culture. In the late 1960s, the site housed the most representative collection of Brazilian plants, alongside other rare tropical species. At the site, 3,500 cultivated species of tropical and subtropical flora grow in harmony with the native vegetation of the region, including mangrove, restinga (a distinct type of tropical tropical and subtropical broadleaf tropical rainforest) and Atlantic forest. Sítio Roberto Burle Marx presents an ecological conception of form as a process, including social collaboration which is the basis of environmental and cultural preservation. It is the first modern tropical garden to be inscribed on the World Heritage List.
© IDARQ. Author: Ivan Ghezzi
Peru, Archaeoastronomic Complex of Chankillo
Chankillo Archaeoastronomic Complex is a prehistoric site (250-200 BC sun to set dates throughout the year. The site includes a triple-walled hilltop complex, known as the fortified temple, two building complexes Called Observatory and Administrative Center, a line of 13 cubic towers stretching along the crest of a hill and the Cerro Mucho Malo which complements the thirteen towers as a natural marker. The ceremonial center was probably dedicated to a solar cult, and the presence of an observation point on either side of the north-south line of the Thirteen Towers makes it possible to observe both sunrise and sunset throughout the year. proof of a great innovation in using the solar cycle and an artificial horizon to mark the solstices, equinoxes and all other dates of the year with an accuracy of 1 to 2 days. a long historical evolution of astronomical practices in the Casma valley.
© CPCN, Getty Foundation. Author: Javier Villasuso
Uruguay, The work of engineer Eladio Dieste: Church of Atlántida
Atlantida Church with its belfry and underground baptistery is located in Estación Atlántida, 45 km from Montevideo. Inspired by Paleo-Christian and medieval Italian religious architecture, the modernist church complex, inaugurated in 1960, represents a new use of exposed and reinforced brick. Built on a rectangular one-room plan, the church features distinctive wavy walls supporting an equally wavy roof, made up of a sequence of Gaussian reinforced brick vaults developed by Eladio Dieste (1917-2000). The cylindrical bell tower, built in openwork exposed brick, rises from the ground to the right of the main facade of the church, while the underground baptistery is located to the left of the square, accessible from a triangular prismatic entrance and lit by a central oculus . The church provides a prominent example of the remarkable formal and spatial achievements of modern architecture in Latin America during the second half of the twentieth century, embodying the pursuit of social equality with an economical use of resources, responding to structural imperatives. with great aesthetic effect.
© Regional program for the protection of Chinchorro sites.
Chile, settlement and artificial mummification of the Chinchorro culture in the region of Arica and Parinacota
the goods consists of three components: Faldeo Norte del Morro de Arica, Colón 10, both in the town of Arica, and Desembocadura de Camarones, in a rural environment about 100 km further south. Together they bear witness to a culture of marine hunter-gatherers who resided on the harsh and harsh north coast of the Atacama Desert in the far north of Chile from around 5450 BCE to 890 BCE. The property presents the oldest known archaeological evidence of artificial body mummification with cemeteries that contain both artificially mummified bodies and some that have been preserved due to environmental conditions. Over time, the Chinchorro perfected complex mortuary practices, whereby they systematically dismembered and reassembled the bodies of deceased men, women and children from across the social spectrum to create “artificial” mummies. These mummies possess material, sculptural and aesthetic qualities which are believed to reflect the fundamental role of the dead in Chinchorro society. Mineral and vegetable tools as well as simple bone and shell implements which have allowed intensive exploitation of marine resources have been found in the property which bears a unique testimony to the complex spirituality of the Chinchorro culture.
Mexico, Franciscan Ensemble of the Monastery and Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption of Tlaxcala [extension of “Earliest 16th-Century Monasteries on the Slopes of Popocatepetl”, inscribed in 1994]
the Franciscan Ensemble of the Monastery and Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption is part of the first construction program launched in 1524 for the evangelization and colonization of the territories of northern Mexico. The ensemble is one of the first five monasteries founded by Franciscan, Dominican and Augustinian friars, and one of the three still standing. The other two are already inscribed on the World Heritage List. The Tlaxcala building complex provides an example of the architectural model and spatial solutions developed in response to a new cultural context, which integrated local elements to create spaces such as large atriums and capilla posa chapels. The building has two other peculiarities, a free-standing tower and a wooden Mudejar not found in the other monasteries already inscribed on the World Heritage List as part of the serial property. It helps to better understand the evolution of a new architectural model that influenced both urban development and monastic buildings until the 18th century.