How classical music confronts its colonial past and present
No work of Western classical music is more closely associated with the Christmas season than German-born composer George Frideric Handel Messiah, which was established in 1742.
In recent years, the public has been able to choose between performances modeled on those of the composer’s time, performances following the 19th century tradition of massive choirs and modern instruments and even staged and choreographed interpretations work. When COVID-19 reduced live performance, online video presentations became a new medium.
This was following global protests over the murder of George Floyd and a global revitalization of Black Lives Matter. Among artists from different industries, classical black artists as baritone Andrew Adridge, in conversation with writer Michael Zarathus-Cook, called for classical music to solve systemic problems. He noted, âThere is a problem with race inâ¦ arts organizations because there is a problem in Canadaâ and âavoiding conversationsâ will not help.
In a separate article, Zarathus-Cook wrote of how “we need to recognize that the protests we have seen are being spurred both by the urgent need for a radical assessment of the police force and of how they interact with [Black, Indigenous and people of colour], and the a more subtle, culturally diffused daily racism that is not triggered by a premature trigger, but by words and social cues which remind the racialized peoples of this country that they are irrevocably outward looking. “
Even before the global Black Lives Matter protests, a 2018 report written for the nonprofit Orchestras Canada by writer and arts consultant Soraya Peerbaye and violinist and ethnomusicologist Parmela Attariwala documents “Systemic inequality and coloniality in Canadian orchestras”, ranging from orchestral management and governance structures to their repertoire and working methods. Music scholars have also been grappling with the colonial heritage of classical music, including Handel’s investments in the slave trade.
Two interpretations of “Messiah”
In December 2020, the Toronto Theater against grain (AtG) and Sound stream produces pre-recorded movies based on the Messiah which was streamed for free on YouTube. The two organizations have shown creative ingenuity to pivot quickly into the pandemic to produce digital content and provide jobs for artists in the early months of COVID-19 as the precariousness of artists’ livelihoods grew increasingly Claire.
How these two Canadian companies chose to respond to our contemporary context of anti-racist appeals by interpreting Messiah provides the opportunity to have a conversation about how performers and audiences of Western classical music can more fully engage in anti-colonial and anti-racist work.
To these questions we, two white settler scholars, bring our combined research expertise into 18th century music and how independent opera companies in Canada are help works of the past to talk about contemporary issues. One of us (Nina) is involved in a project, “Exploring New Models of Collaboration in Indigenous Directed Opera in Canada. “This collaboration is with Amplified Opera, a Toronto-based collective that inspires audiences to “Embrace diverse and stimulating cultural experiences. “
Against the ‘Messiah / Complex’ of the Grain
The new interpretation of the theater Against the Grain Messiah, Messiah / Complex, hopes to support Indigenous and under-represented voices as part of their mandate to present familiar pieces “in innovative ways and in unusual places”. They decided to present Handel’s orchestral music as originally written, which was to be performed by the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, but they hired all the native, black or racialized solo singers, 12 in total.
Joel Ivany, Founder and Artistic Director of AtG, has teamed up with Reneltta Arluk, Director of Akpik Theater and of Indigenous arts at the Banff Center for Arts and Creativity co-direct the production. Ivany relayed that the artists were invited to choose the interpretation framework and language for their performances. The film features segments in Arabic, Dene, English, Inuktitut, Inuttitut, French and Southern Tutchone.
Features in the New York Times, BBC (endorsed by Margaret Atwood) and other major media won the film more than 138,000 views in 44 countries. Art journalist Brad Wheeler, writing in the Globe and Mail, described him as a “An impressive lesson in reconciliation and inclusion”, while a New York Times title on the story of writer Dan Bilefsky said Handel’s work “Freed from the bonds of history”.
Soundstreams’ “Electric Messiah”
Another production based on Handel’s work, Electric Messiah by Soundstreams was billed as “A complete video clip that reinvents Handel’s classic for today’s world” and âbrings the past to life in a new way that reflects the city we live inâ.
In agreement with Soundstreams mandate to showcase the work of living composers, the company has made minimal changes to the lyrics. Instead, the artists combine these lyrics with new music with influences from electronic dance music, pop and hip hop.
The colonial legacy of classical music
Chez Peerbaye and Attariwala Orchestras Canada Report, they call on Canadian orchestras “to create non-hierarchical environments in which artistic investigations of Indigenous artists and artists of color can take place.” Engaging in “broader conversations about the experiences of Indigenous peoples, people of color and other equity-seeking communities” will enable orchestras to “cultivate equal and reciprocal relationships that meaningfully support artistic research. current â.
These recommendations are included in Hungry Listening: Resonance Theory for Native Sound Studies, a recent book by StÃ³: lÅ scholar and artist Dylan Robinson. He notes that the problem with the inclusion of more diverse artists and traditions, without changing existing working methods, is that even the âbest integration intentions continue to strengthen and maintain the hierarchical dominance of artistic music by as a genre to which other music must conform. “
Fair collaborations with musicians from other traditions will involve working in new ways. Robinson also recommends highlighting the irreconcilability of different musical traditions. Allowing these differences to be heard could foster greater openness to the idea that reconciliation cannot be achieved by âincludingâ Aboriginal people in existing colonial models.
New interpretive frameworks
In Messiah / Complex, some artists have expressed the Indigenous resurgence by singing in Indigenous languages ââor challenging Western classical and colonial tropes. Baritone NÃªhiyaw-Michif (Cris-MÃ©tis) Jonathon Adams describes their performance like a âCommentary on what it means to be Two-Spirit and Aboriginal in Albertaâ. The performance juxtaposed shots of an oil refinery with the surrounding lands and waters of their homeland.
AtG has featured singers outside of the Western classical tradition, several of whom are also songwriters Where composers. However, their composition skills were not showcased. AtG’s decision to ask the Toronto Symphony Orchestra to provide the backing tracks may suggest that, to combat the industry’s dominant whiteness, nothing in the sound of Western classical music needs change – that all that is needed is to employ more indigenous, black and racialized artists. But this approach ignores criticisms of how the sounds and values ââof classical music can “constitute a structural obstacle to diversification”, as noted by Chris Jenkins, violist, musicologist and associate dean at the Oberlin Conservatory.
Agency for singers and musicians
Soundstreams has given singers and musicians more agency over music. Adam Scime, composer and musical director of the 2020 edition of Electric Messiah, note that they invite the musicians involved in each iteration to “Bring their own voice to sculpt the project” and that they “give everyone a collaborative level playing field”.
In accordance with Robinson’s recommendations, the individual artists of Electric Messiah maintained sovereignty over their segments. Meanwhile, viewers are encouraged to appreciate the differences between, for example, SlowPitchSoundPlatinism by, MÃ©tis and French-Canadian composer Ian cusson dead, oh grave, and Scime’s chorus “Hallelujah” reinvented as a dance party on the beach. In doing so, Soundstreams not only explored new and more equitable ways of working together, but the sonic results challenged the hegemony of the Western classical tradition.